Tag Archives: history

Development of the Telephone

With over six out of every seven people on the planet using it in one form or another, the telephone surely must be the most commonly used technological device of today’s world.

The invention of the telephone is often attributed to Alexander Graham Bell, who in 1876 was the first to obtain a patent on a sound transmitting “apparatus.” But truth be told, many other inventors had been working on similar technologies ever since the 1830’s.

An essential complement to the telephone, the switchboard, was also invented in 1876 by Hungarian engineer Tivadar Pusks. In spite of its crucial importance to future of telephone networks, it would still be many years before switchboards became commonplace.

The earliest telephones from the 1870’s until the mid-1890’s were sold in pairs that would be connected together over a distance to facilitate communication between, say, a residence and a workshop.

The creation of a telephone network through the use of switchboards began in Lexington, Massachusetts, in 1894. The operators were almost exclusively women, and for the next half-century, this was how all long-distance phone calls in the United States were relayed.

In 1951, “area codes” were introduced for eleven cities across the United States, creating the ability to make automatic long-distance phone calls that bypassed the switchboards. Still in use today in or close to the same location, except for the one in San Francisco, these area codes were: 215 (Philadelphia), 216 (Cleveland), 312 (Chicago), 313 (Detroit), 318 (San Francisco), 401 (Providence), 412 (Pittsburgh), 414 (Milwaukee), 415 (Oakland), 617 (Boston), and 916 (Sacramento).

For decades to follow, things then remained pretty much unchanged until the popularization of Mobile Phones and VoIP telephony.

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

The latest majorly different way to transmit phone calls is known as VoIP, short for “Voice over Internet Protocol.” It was invented by Alon Cohen and Lior Haramaty in 1994, and introduced to the market in 1995 with the release of the first VoIP software by VocalTec.

Today, there are dozens of companies such as Skype or Vonage offering VoIP telephone services at rates that are usually much less than traditional landlines or mobile phone rates.

While extraordinarily price competitive, three disadvantages commonly mentioned with VoIP phone services are, 1) You cannot make emergency calls (911) through your VoIP service, 2) Your number will be unlisted, which may make you more difficult to find, 3) Your phone will not function when there’s a power outage.

Mobile Telephones

Mobile phones experienced an explosion in popularity in the 1990’s, driven by lower cost and expanded networks. However, it may surprise you to know that the first successful mobile phone took place in 1946, from a car in St Louis, Missouri.

Ten years later, the first automatic car phone was introduced in Sweden. That contraption, constructed with vacuum tubes and relays, weighed close to 90 lbs.

Even though the technology transmit phone calls wirelessly is old, the use of cell phones did not take off in earnest until the 1990’s. At the end of the 1980’s, only one in seventy Americans use some kind of mobile phone, and many of those were the kind installed into automobiles. Ten years later, the number of American mobile phone users had jumped to one in three. Take another leap to the year 2011, and the number of cell phone subscriptions surpassed the population; which means that on average, every American now uses a mobile phone.

Across the globe today, in world of 7 billion people, there are 5.9 billion cell phone subscribers. Put that in contrast to 1.26 billion landline telephone services. The mobile phone revolution is over in a mere two decades.

With a background as a translator, writer and publisher, Kent J Davidsson currently works in the utilities and communications industry. For quotes on communication services, including phone, Internet and television, please write to him and his team via e-mail write to@lower-utility-bills.us.

African Beads: A History

Egypt was the first country to generate a big variety of beads from a bunch of different materials. Their beads weren’t only used for necklaces or bead bracelets, but were also attached to papyrus and linen backings to make belts, aprons, and sandals. Beadwork originated in Egypt around 2200 B.C. Egyptian beadwork was made by a special technique that strung single beads together, instead of using a bead loom. Beadwork bands and figures were the main products created using this method.

Africans wore beads to communicate cultural values in a symbolic language that signified rank, religion, politics, and artistic views. Cowrie shells were cherished for their durability and their shape (symbolizing female fertility), also have an ancient history in Africa. Over ten thousand years ago, cowries were used in burial offerings. One of the earlier known African beads are disk-shaped forms made of ostrich eggshells recovered from Upper Paleolithic (10,000 B.C.) sites in Libya and somewhat later Neolithic sites in the Sudan.

In Kenya, where locally made iron was abundant, large faceted iron beads have been developed by the Turkana for generations. European pioneers and traders landing in West Africa in the early 15th century saw an abundance of gold jewelry, including beaded necklaces and bead bracelets. Glass beads were bought by Africans for incense, ivory, tortoiseshell, rhinoceros horn, palm and coconut oils, timer, pig iron, and gold. Between the 1500s and 1867, it is believed that fifteen million slaves were shipped from Africa to the Americas for the exchange of European glass beads.

Beads are still used in Africa to produce objects that represent spiritual values based on the survival of the community. These objects play a huge role in rituals insuring continuity of the group: birth, circumcision, marriage, kingship, warriorhood and death.

Beadworkers still make crowns for Yoruba kings and beaded regalia and clothing for Bamum and Kuba Kings. Artist from the Kuba Kingdom in Democratic Republic of Congo are well known for the elaboration and beauty of their two-dimensional patterns. Along with their most breath-taking creations there are ceremonial clothing, chairs, and adornment for the Kuba King and high-ranking officials of the Kuba court. They embroider costumes and objects with distinctive patterns by alternating colorful beads and white cowrie shell with few empty spaces on the custom.

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The Influence Of Far East Beads In History

Unlike European and African cultures, Far East beads wasn’t always used as jewelry. Beads were mostly used in decoration such as hair clips, belt hooks, bead bracelets, buckles and plaques. Beads were typically strung to headdresses and hats.

Beads were not usually used in worship in early Far Eastern history. In fact, Chinese culture was instrumental in establishing both Korean and Japanese culture, through Confucianism, which was based on a system of ethics and morality, and which shunned the practice of getting worldly possessions. Beads were however, consistently manufactured for export as well as limited use in Far Eastern culture. Some of the most exquisite craftsmanship found is in Chinese eye beads, which are some of the most breathe taking and complex beads ever created.

It wasn’t until Buddhism became a part of Far East beads culture that beads in the form of prayer beads became part of religious ritual. Buddhism also in time permitted the relaxation of strict class distinctions, allowing those in Far East beads cultures to put together less rigid views on jewelry. This resulted in a greater access to luxury goods and beads for all classes of people.

Beads from Korea were commonly made with jade, lapis lazuli, carnelian and glass. Korean culture unlike Chinese culture used gold and silver quite a bit in their bead work. These beads were used to lavish crowns and other jewelry in royal tombs.

The most valued bead from ancient Japanese culture is the carved ojime bead, which was created in Japan and expresses the concept of adornment, as useful as well as amazing. The ojime bead was a carved figurine used to act as a closure for a compartmentalized box called an inro, which served as a type of wallet, since kimonos worn by men and women didn’t have any pockets.

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Sixty Two – Choose Roman Halloween Costumes – Life And Togas Of Times Past

Perhaps the strongest civilization in history was the powerful society recreated with Roman Halloween costumes. Widely available in costume stores, by mail order or as rental costumes, these may be historically correct or you can add your own personality to the design with accessories. Dress as a famous ruler of the time, be a brutish and brave gladiator or a spoiled and demanding lady of the era. The Roman Halloween costumes provide an opportunity for expression and for learning.

Information is available to help you create a totally realistic and historically accurate design. You may choose to spend a significant amount or choose replicated accessories that mimic the real thing while keeping the cost at a reasonable level. Many props can be constructed from inexpensive items yet appear historically accurate to the period.

Inspiration can be found in history books and other texts as well as in films. Many people have seen Russell Crowe in the film Gladiator, released in 2000. This top rated Ridley Scott film provides a wealth of visuals from Roman times. A quick internet search will produce a number of sites dedicated to the history and specific aspects of ancient Rome, including the culture’s attire!

The basic item of your design will be a robe of some sort. This robe may be as simple as a draped sheet that bares both arms and perhaps one shoulder or you might have a bathrobe that will serve the purpose. You can get fancy with purchased fabrics and sew your own robe or gown or buy a ready made Toga available in a nearby college town. Purchasing a garment may be costly but will serve you well if you plan to use your Roman Halloween costumes for more than one occasion or for several years of trick or treat.

The Roman gladiators were highly regarded for their skills in the fighting arena. Even today, the lives of these deadly men are glorified. If you are seeking a hint of brutish strength and bloodthirsty violence in your Halloween look, consider the Roman gladiator.

The weapons used by gladiators ranged from Roman style swords and daggers to lances, harpoons and scimitars. They carried shields and are often shown with wide leather bands that crisscross their muscular bare chests. Many of the weapons can be made with simple items such as cardboard and painted to appear “”real””. Footwear most commonly shown are sandals with leather straps or ties wound up the leg and tied just below the knee.

If you plan to use an actual metal replica, remember to be careful. Swordplay is generally not recommended in someone’s home, even outside it can be dangerous with children and others running around. Always have a place to safely stow your weapon where young ones cannot get to it.

Relive ancient Roman times and be as historically correct as you wish with Roman Halloween costumes. The muscled gladiator, famous characters such as Caesar, sashaying nobles or simple slave of this time in history is a way to show off your knowledge of this famous society that fell into ruin so long ago. Edited by Hetsil Protage

Choose Halloween costumes online and don your historical toga as a gladiator in Roman Halloween costume

Unique & Popular Wedding Bands for Grooms: Choices for Your Wedding Day

In the past when thinking of mens wedding bands, most people didn’t consider design options beyond a plain domed or flat gold band, and many jewelers selections didn’t offer more variety than these basic styles either. Luckily, the mens wedding rings market of today features a much broader selection in general, and web stores in particular showcase some of the most elegant and attractive weddings rings for men anywhere. All in all, men now have a vast selection of metals and styles to choose from that will reflect their lifestyle and personality!

The beauty and originality of three and two tone wedding bands in a number of styles has won over many a future bride, groom, or couple in search of the perfect wedding ring. Two and three tone wedding rings have a very distinctive look, and the use of a two or three tone color scheme in designing these rings holds limitless possibilities.

Celtic knot wedding rings in gold or platinum made by artisans in a tradition that dates back millennia and are still known today for their fine design and amazing crafting of exquisite jewelry are a wonderful choice. These rings quickly become a treasure to people who own them, are known for their uniqueness, beauty and symbolism. Mens Celtic rings feature beautiful traditional knotwork and Irish folk and are among the oldest forms of a special type of jewelry that denoted one’s tribal, family, and trade affiliation.

Mens Celtic rings, featuring beautiful traditional knotwork and Irish folk symbols like the claddagh, are among the oldest forms of a special type of jewelry that denoted one’s tribal, family, and trade affiliation. In a tradition that dates back millennia, Celtic jewelry artisans are still known today for their fine design and amazing crafting of exquisite Celtic rings for men, along with many more types of jewelry. Celtic knot wedding rings in gold or platinum, which quickly become a treasure to people who own them, are known for their uniqueness, beauty and symbolism.

Custom made ladies’ and men’s two tone wedding bands or platinum and gold wedding rings are also an option when you feel your wedding day or other special occasion calls for an exquisite two tone wedding band unlike any other. If you don’t see the ring you’ve been dreaming of among a shop’s inventory, it never hurts to ask about custom orders! Even online retailers often provide great results in designing two tone diamond wedding bands for your special day!

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The History Of The Keyboard And Piano Audio

Although cello audio is right now thought to be while as being a normal section of a new musician’s resource, your instrument acquired somewhat inauspicious root base. With the 17th century age traditional tunes had been from critical as an off shoot within the artistic Rebirth which in fact have spread via all Eu cultural living. For that reason, at any time better devices ended up needed to obtain informed about the songs that’s slowly required royals inside the era.

1 regal especially, Ferdinand r Medici, who was simply in those times the royal prince of Tuscany, conscripted his “keeper inside the elegant instruments” to boost across the regular design and style for your harpsichord which have been used right up until that time. Keyboard tunes, such as tunes created by various other struck stringed instruments, is made by simply showing up inside the strategies activate a new retracted inside made entire body which in turn strikes strings to produce a resonating rate of recurrence. Bartolommeo Christopher already been good at repairing the problem involving hit line instruments by simply making the one that may make your hammer affect your string after which it speedily come back to the authentic situation so that you can certainly not dampen the actual appear. Even though Christopher’s violin ended up being significantly even higher as compared to prior arranged stringed instruments, it was even now too calm for use to find out large performances.

Earlier fine-tuning could possibly be required by additional creative designers right before the particular keyboard would certainly end up being the extraordinary musical instrument we view these days, nevertheless Christopher created the model that all various other head would start. The renowned tunes performer Johann Sebastian Patchable would certainly turn into instrumental in increasing the traditional in the musical instrument while he critiqued any keyboard layout by simply Gottfried Silbermann. Your famous composer favored a even more louder tool, as well as Silbermann obligated your ex. Bach would create their greatest cello audio employing this layout.

From the fiscal Emerging trend, mass production can come to have an effect on nearly every area of European lifetime, perhaps artisan creation of the actual violin. 1 merchandise through the adjust was be simple buying of material, that last but not least fixed the particular quietness issue still vexing musicians while past due since 19th century. Introducing the straightened shape to inside keyboard style improved the particular instrument’s resonance good quality considerably on account of versions involving steel as well as the timber that was in the past used. One aspect had been the potency of the particular brand-new content when compared to wood, which in turn permitted for additional post which has been heavier and much more effective as compared to prior to. This authorized piano audio staying performed receiving a larger powerful assortment; this means composers experienced a lot more creative independence while crafting their own operates.

The evolution from the piano continues even today, although the instrument itself has mostly stopped to become changed by creators. The grand piano is just about the usual standard for acoustic piano performances because of its great dynamic range and energy, as the electric piano may be the standard for popular music due to its flexibility even when it’s frequently belittled because of not precisely resembling great instrument’s seem. Nonetheless, piano music has already established a lengthy and fascinating history. The piano itself has was the ages and it has proven its sustain through the age range.

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Folklore And Folk Traditions In Canada Faq

Folklore refers to human expression, wisdom, and information, which is passed on from one generation to another, mainly anonymously, circulated, and transmitted as traditional cultural behavior. Canadian folk traditions are built on the traditions of different ethnicities and groups: Anglo-Canadian, encompassing Scottish, Welsh, Irish, and English, aboriginal – native Indian and Inuit, French Canadian, and other population groups.

A variety of factors have contributed to the preservation of folklore in Canada. Some of them are a predominantly rural composition of the population in the past, a high level of illiteracy among some ethnic groups in earlier times, and the use of folklore to foster self-consciousness at the local and national level.

The folk tradition of the US has had its impact on Canadian folklore, but the opposite holds true as well. The Canadian wilderness, for example, and the Mountie hero, have influenced US folklore. Immigrants to Canada brought their experiences and traditions, contributing to the creation of songs and stories about immigrating to Canada. The multiform and rich folklore of the native peoples in Canada can be explained mainly by the delayed effects of European influence. Enthusiasts and scholars have studied native folklore, producing collections and research on rituals and spoken narratives. Native healing practices, rituals performed by shamans or medicine men, and the Sun Dance are well documented. Indian and Inuit myths contribute to the Canadian folk tradition. Being creation and hero myths, they tell stories about stealing light or feature fire or culture heroes. Such are the Nanabozo stories popular among the Algonquian and the Raven and Thunderbird cycles.

The development of the folk tradition of native people, Eskimo and Indians, and the folk tradition of the British and French has been influenced by their interaction and contact. Well documented are the folk tales of French Canadians, Indians, and Eskimo, and to a lesser extent the English and Gaelic folk tradition.

A well-known and important personage from the past is the contour or story-teller. A popular motif is that of the buried treasure, and this legend can be heard in various forms. A typical story tells about a gold treasure that was buried in the Sauteux Mountains by sailors. A hero known as the Little Gray Man guards the treasure. Gnomes and goblins also appear in the folklore of French Canadians, as well as haunted houses and places. In addition to stories revolving around general beliefs, there are stories about specific characters like Little Red Riding Hood, Blue Beard, Sleeping Beauty, and others.

Scotch Gaelic tales are representative of the folk tradition of Cape Breton, Glengarry county, and Nova Scotia. Witchcraft and witches are rooted in the folk tradition of some areas (Cape Breton and the county of Antigonish). Tales of people who acquired supernatural power after bartering their soul with the devil are not rare. Finally, the close resemblance between Gaelic and Indian legends illustrates the close mutual influence of native and Anglo-Canadian folklore.

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Gold Coins – All About U.S. Gold Double Eagles

If you are a coin collector, you must have come across or you must have read about the U.S. gold double eagles? It is a special issue of American gold coin. It has a denomination of $20. This coin contains ninety percent gold and ten percent alloy so this is indeed valuable. The coin was first struck and minted in the year 1849.

Brief History

One of the rarest tyope of gold coins are the Double Eagles. The year 1848 was a significant moment for the gold industry. It is when people discovered the gold in California. It created a steady flow of gold. Minting companies were producing only $10 pieces at that time. The mint choose to go the extra mile and create larger denominations of coins. First double eagle was minted in 1849. Its denomination was twenty dollar coin. Then the two pieces of Double Eagle coins were produced that same year as proof. The first coin is placed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC. The Smithsonian Institution is funded by the government to be a research establishment. It is also affiliated with the museum complex. The second coin on the other hand, was handed to William M. Meredith. He was part of the treasury secretary at that time and was also a lawyer and politician. But the whereabouts of this second coin is unknown because as part of his estate, it was auctioned.

In spring of 1933, 455,500 double eagles are produced. The two Double eagles were set aside from the rest. But no Double eagles went out in the circulation.


President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered to stop the ownership of this precious metal in 1933. There were no 1933 Double Eagles were released. However, crooks stole the Double Eagles from the government and it took years for the coins to be recovered.

The Double Gold Eagle In Egypt

In the year 1954, the famous Double gold eagle again appeared in Cairo, Egypt. King Farouk is known for his great love for collecting coins. He owns more than 8,500 gold coins, included in his collection is the ever so popular Double gold eagle. As soon as the U.S. government found out that Double gold eagle was in the auction, they immediately requested the coin to be withdrawn from the sale. After which, people lost track of the coin once more.

Who Is Stephen Fenton?

Not until 1996 when Stephen Fenton, a British coin dealer was seized. He is about to try to sell it to a fraud coin collector. He has no idea that it was a secret service agent that he’s been dealing with. Fenton tried to fight for his legal rights of the coin for several years. The US government and Fenton finally decided to auction the coin and the proceeds will be split between the two.

Million-Dollar Bid

In 2002, a 1933 Double eagle coin was sold for $7,590,020. The deal was over for about less than nine minutes. With that amount, the Double eagle gold coin was noted as the world’s most expensive coin. Half of the payment goes to the United States Treasury, which includes the $20 to monetize the coin. The other half was entitled to Stephen Fenton. Stephen Fenton was a coin dealer who took hold of the coin.

The double gold eagle has a very controversial history. There are lots of imitation of this kind of coin, so you need to know the specifications so that if ever you get a chance to meet coin dealer that deals Double eagle coin, you will not be victimized.

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1804 Draped Bust Dollar – Dexter Dollar – Facts And Important Considerations

Today, there are thousands or millions of coin collectors. Others are into buying gold and silver mint coins because they are good investments. Others are genuine coin collectors who are always on the look out for rare finds.

There are quite a number of impressive silver coins as well as gold coins that are still on sale or in circulation in the United States alone. What more in Europe and Canada. Man’s fascination and love for the finer things in life such silver and gold had made the bullion minting industry as one of the more stable industries in the United States as well as the European business.

One of the finest dollar coins ever minted in the United States, the Draped Bust Dollar is also one of the most popular coins to collect. Also known as the Dexter Dollar. The fascination of many people including avid coin collectors to the Draped Bust Dollar extends up to this date. Its design and execution is something true coin collectors would love to have in their treasure chest.

Let us take a look at some of the most important facts behind the 1804 Draped Bust Dollar for your information.

The Design

On the contrary, the designer of this fine coin is unknown. But because of the distinct style and pattern, it was believed to be designed by Gilbert Stuart, a famous coin designer. The model is also unknown but a lot of experts believe it to be Anne Willing Bingham.

At the obverse, was the image of the Liberty with her hair in intricate curls. The reverse side is the American bald eagle in heraldic form.

Silver put to a Stop

During the minting of the Draped Bust Dollar, Mint Director Elias Boudinot ordered a great change in its silver content. Instead of .900 or 90% silver purity, it was decreased to .892 or 89.2%. This is largely due to the decrease in silver that was deposited at the Philadelphia Mint. In 1804 the minting of silver coins was officially halted and was altogether put to a stop in 1806.

Collecting Frenzy

The coin only became popular when the son of Adam Eckfeldt, Jacob Eckfeldt and partner William Du Bois wrote and published a notable book known as “A Manual of Gold and Silver Coins of all Nations, Struck Within the Past Century”.

The Coin’s Popularity

Before the 19th century ended the 1804 Draped Bust Dollar became the talk of the town. Its design and silver purity made it one of the most sought after coins in the United States. It has become the most famous of all American minted coins.

In 1867, a 1804 Draped Bust Dollar – Dexter Dollar was sold for $750, which is about $12,000 if converted in our money today. But in 1999 its’ price soar to about $140,000!

If you are one of the few who holds a 1804 Draped Bust Dollar – Dexter Dollar in possession, you are very lucky. It is best to hold on to it and if you are thinking about selling, now is probably the best time. The price of gold and silver in the market are quite high.

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The Terrific Mothers’ Day Holiday: Outstanding Worldwide

Mother’s Days in many countries are big gift-giving occasions, and there can be a lot of pressure to come up with the absolute perfect gift. Jewelry is always a safe bet, and there are many options of special mother’s rings and other mother’s jewelry available, which is customized with the birthstone of each child.

The occasions of the present- day U.S. & many other countries date back to an essay penned by Julia Ward Howe in the 1870s, and later when Anna Jarvis promoted setting an official celebration in the early 1900s. The earliest origins of the modern Mothers’ Day, however, may lie in the society of the ancient Greeks. The Greeks held a festival in those days that functioned to honor mother goddesses, and human mothers by extension, every year around the winter to spring equinox. After the Romans took power later on, they continued this tradition.

The Mother’s Day holiday is quite familiar to many people, maybe most people, as a day of celebrating love and appreciation for moms everywhere. More and more commonly this also means honoring the people in our lives that have been like mothers to us as well. Mother’s Day is celebrated at different times from culture to culture for a number of reasons; here is an overview of some of those dates and their history.

In the United Kingdom, the date on which Mothers Day is recognized each year is related to the timing of Lent, whereas Canada & the United States always celebrate the 2nd Sunday of May. The second Sunday of May is, in fact, the choice of eighty-two several countries on six continents– this is every continent with a native population. Overall, May is by far the most popular month in which to set Mother’s Day, with 104 countries choosing to celebrate sometime during the fifth month.

In other nations such as Bulgaria & Ukraine, Mother’s Day festivities take place on March 8th to coincide with the observance of International Women’s Day. Still other places, including Egypt, observe Mothers’ Day on March 21, the vernal equinox; this may just be a throwback to the original festivities so many centuries ago. In the same manner, other days are frequently chosen to coincide with the local culture’s established occasions of mothers, much like many other well known holidays.

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