Tag Archives: Architecture

The benefits of having a lumber toronto deck designed

There’s truly something about timber. Simply by the very character, it consists of an inviting attractiveness about it, which certainly goes back to it being one amongst our first creating materials in the earliest times of human evolution. We happen to be building decks and fences in Toronto for many years and are widely known through the expression “Toronto Decks Builder”.

Wooden decks clearly create elegance plus heat for a home. Liked by all your close friends or family, a fabulous real wood deck creates an outdoor place, hence moving the indoors out in to the open and broadening your main residing space. In a few locations

Wood decks greatly enhance the landscaping of most residences, but in particular, they perform well with many kinds of gardens.

Modern landscaping design: This unique type utilizes dramatic geometric shapes and sizes, very easily personified in timber planks, to produce a point of view that is very smooth and purely natural. Vertical and horizontal planes can easily produce a modern sculpture effect while colors and plantings evoke a good comfortable, pleasing sense. Drinking water and mild are often employed, as with artfully-lit outside water fountains, in order to enhance the aesthetic feast. It is the juxtaposition of gentle and hard, linear and non-linear, free-flowing and restrained that defines modern landscape style. Wood decks match neatly into this kind of backyard and you will find quite a few examples worth mentioning within the Toronto areas.

Japanese garden style: Within this tradition, the backyard garden is really a microcosm of naturel, therefore a wooden deck matches in completely. It is able to perform off very well next to fences and gates, other elements essential to Japanese back yards with their underlying philosophy of enclosure. The fence closes us apart from the outside world, the entrance stands out as the threshold from which we enter into the escape and leave for the outdoors world, and the wood deck connects people to our normal selves. There are numerous examples of these types of gardens in the North Toronto vicinity.

We use the correct cedar to construct our wooden decks and fences.

When picking out wood for your decking or fences, cedar and pressure-treated wood are the most well-liked materials option. Many individuals select treated pine due to the fact it holds up effectively to weather conditions and damp ground, a couple of with the most typical issues we deal with within the Toronto vicinity. We build a good deal of decks and fences, gazebos, sheds within the Rosedale and Forest Hill region where the moisture is great. Choosing the proper lumber for these decks and fence projects is extremely important.

However, Ipe, Tigerwood, Redwood and Western Red Cedar have resins that by natural means protect them from weathering and rotting, too. Cedar can also be preferred since it carries dimensional stability as well as a organic effectiveness against weathering. These kinds of woods usually lie even, remain straight, retain fasteners and deliver a company foundation for numerous kinds of stains and paints. Any time using cedar in the Toronto Decks and Fence business, all of our valued clientele are very pleased with our company and consider us to become experts.

Following our business has built a structure for you, wooden decks and fences will need to become coated every two many years or so. A penetrating, distinct wooden end or stain ought to accomplish the same goal. It is also a very good plan to frequently verify for protruding nail heads, some thing that occurs with temperature modifications which makes wooden expand and agreement. You can expect to also want to appear for just about any decaying places, primarily on stairs and also railings. These types of services may be incorporated in landscape upkeep contracts with landscaping services businesses. With specialty lumber like Ipe, Tigerwood and Western Red Cedar, the procedure is extremely precise and I would only suggest doing this when you have prior experience.

In order to locate much more content with regards to decks and also fence, visit Meticulous Toronto Decks and Fence Service. Best wood plans found at Sociable Toronto decks and fence constructors.

Home Design For Your Beautiful Home

A lot of people today everywhere currently usually are choosing organic or even green design and green home design in beautiful homes. This is in part simply because that people desire living a life that provides them a feel of nature.

Artificially ventilated interior designs and large urban centers never offer up natural oxygen or the feel of nature; that is why men and women journey a long way away to such natural places to wind down.

At this point, decide for yourself; how much room would you like spending most of your life in? An interior design that provides a natural breeze, day light, along with refreshing fresh air, or perhaps a storage space this is simply artificially produced?

Many capable used to think that organic and natural beautiful home design will be the options of those who don’t want to buy his or her home designs. Should you be believing that your own interior will not likely dmarche attrayante and different for those who turn to organic home designing, then you’re incorrectly! Your current interior could be organic and natural, still in addition unique, enticing, remarkably agreeable and nutritious likewise.

What might you caused by improve your natural and organic interior design? Bamboo is one stunning materials. It is actually utilised in shelters, property h2o tires, dinners, weaving baskets together, and after this they come because bamboo shades on top of that.

After you installation bamboo bedding glasses in your beautiful homes or office interior, you’re making sure that not so many chemicals are usually in the air, so you breathe fresh and more purified oxygen.

Also try this with regard to green design and interior design is to add great indoor plants too. You can get a handful of all of them and set all of them on the stairs, at your home access, or even everytime you could have room.

Another idea for your green interior design is solar energy. This doesn’t usually relate with solar panel systems either; furthermore, it implies including natural light into your home.

Do you like home design? Than check out more beautiful homes and interior home design tips right now. You will discover about magnificent interior design.

The benefits of having a solid wood toronto deck built up

There’s certainly something about wooden. Simply by it’s extremely nature, it has a welcoming look about this, which certainly goes back again to it being certainly one of our initial creating resources during the earliest days of human advancement. We have been building decks and fences in Toronto for numerous many years and are well-known because of the expression “Toronto Decks Builder”.

Timber decks by nature provide elegance as well as warmth to your dwelling. Appreciated by all of your close friends and family members, your wooden deck produces an outdoor room or living area, hence bringing the indoors out into the wide open and widening your personal residing space. In some areas

Wooden decks enhance the back yards of most houses, but in particular, they work nicely with several kinds of gardens.

Modern landscaping style: This particular type works by using remarkable geometric patterns, very easily personified in lumber boards, to design a point of view that’s smooth and organic. Horizontal and vertical planes will be able to generate a modern sculpture result while colours and plantings evoke a warm, welcoming experience. Drinking water and mild are often employed, as with artfully-lit outdoor water fountains, to be able to increase the aesthetic feast. It is the juxtaposition of soft and difficult, linear and non-linear, free-flowing and restrained that defines modern landscape design and style. Wood decks match beautifully into this kind of yard and there are lots of good examples of these in the Toronto neighborhood.

Japanese backyard style: Within this custom, the actual backyard is really a microcosm connected with naturel, therefore a exotic wood deck fits in wonderfully. It could play off nicely against fences and gates, other elements critical to Japanese back gardens with their fundamental philosophy of enclosure. The fence closes us away in the outside globe, the gateway is the threshold from where we enter the getaway and depart for the outdoors globe, and also the real wood deck connects people to our organic selves. You will find many examples of these types of gardens within the North Toronto community.

We use the greatest cedar to build the wood decks and fences.

When picking out wood for the decking or fences, cedar and pressure-treated pine are the most popular materials option. Numerous people select treated pine due to the fact it stands up effectively to weather and damp soil, a couple of with the most widespread difficulties we encounter in the Toronto community. We build a good deal of decks and fences, gazebos, sheds in the Rosedale and Forest Hill region where the moisture is higher. Choosing the correct wood for these decks and fence projects is extremely important.

Nevertheless, Ipe, Tigerwood, Redwood and Western Red Cedar have resins that by natural means protect them from weathering and aging, too. Cedar is additionally favored simply because it possesses dimensional stableness and also a natural ability to resist decomposition. Most of these woods commonly lie even, remain straight, retain fasteners and provide a company structure for numerous kinds of stains and paints. Whenever using cedar in the Toronto Decks and Fence company, each of our clients are very pleased with our business and consider us to be industry experts.

Soon after our business has built a design for you, wood decks and fences demand to be preserved every two years or possibly even longer. A penetrating, clear wooden finish or maybe stain should accomplish the same goal. It’s also a good plan to frequently examine with regard to protruding nail heads, something that occurs with temperature changes which makes wood broaden and agreement. You can expect to also want to look for just about any rotten spots, particularly on steps plus rails. All these solutions may be integrated in landscape maintenance contracts with landscaping service providers. With specialty lumber such as Ipe, Tigerwood and Western Red Cedar, the procedure is very precise and I’d only recommend doing this when you have prior experience.

In order to find a great deal more content relating to decks as well as fence, visit Specific Toronto Decks and Fence Service. Leading quality wood buildings available at Best Toronto decks and fence building firms.

Guide to Labeling Network Cabling Floor Plans

The Network Cabling sector has come a long way from the time when it used to be left out on engineer’s blueprints. Network cabling installation was generally an afterthought. We would likely be brought in nearing the end of the job to install a few wires above the ceiling and move on. Important technology has greatly improved a lot over the years. Telecommunications and other low voltage cabling are a fundamental portion of the building process nowadays.

Just as much as most of these things have progressed for folks in the network cabling installation arena, one common reality is that we are still an afterthought on a few jobs, particularly by the engineers. They often simply associate us alongside the electrical contractors. A triangle next to each desk is typically what we observe, right? My exposure to this subject could guide someone else, so I am going to share a number of recommendations about marking the network wiring floor plans in the network cabling sector. Let’s get rolling:

1) Review the plans before starting up. Search for any visible mistakes or perhaps an office that is missing a location. This can eliminate remarking all drawings down the line. This is when mistakes are usually made. Put in a bit of time beforehand and you’ll keep your problems to a minimum. If you’re marking up the drops put any wallphones(Voip) and wireless access points at the end of the labeling scheme. If something does get forgotten, just add it in at the end of the numbering scheme. A couple of stations out of series shouldn’t be a difficulty.

2) Check to see the kind of numbering scheme the client prefers. This is really important because if you use your own system and the customer wants a different system you’ve got to transfer all labeling info later on. Believe me this is where errors happen. The tech or Pm supervising must move every one of the old station numbers to the new labels. It is a time consuming and monotonous activity especially when you have a massive amount of wires.

This technique could prevent having wires punched down on the incorrect spots. You will discover a lot of extra time that’s involved if this occurs. Each of the erroneous drops must be toned out, taken off of the panel, remarked then placed into the appropriate ports on the respective panel. This seriously turns into a pain if you have dressed one half of the termination point on the left side and half on the right. When you have drops on the incorrect side you must take all of them out and redress to the other side and they could be short, then you have got to make an effort to retrieve some slack from the slack loop(you of course didn’t forget to install one correct!) or if not in the hallway. You see the actual work called for here to fix the mistakes.

3) In cases where you may be numbering the network cable work stations manually write fairly big and clearly when you’re labeling the blueprints. Take into account you grasp your own unique handwriting but some people could have a difficult time translating it. Try and write the numbers in a clean spot on the drawing not over furniture or any other important data you may need to observe later on. Take into account the next guy, which actually a substantial amount of people don’t! I could honestly publish a book about this topic as I’m certain you might agree with me.

4) When you have any important notes place these directly on the print. The staff will have a tendency to take care of the drawings they are operating from a lot more than other papers(emails, note etc) For instance if there’s riser cabling that need to be ran, write all of them on the data blueprint the team is going to be doing the job with. Using this method things are all in one spot. We usually put the phone numbers of the GC or superintendent, project leader & customer if necessary, this way the lead tech has all communication data on his blueprints.

5)Continuously be sure you have a second set of eyes verify the numbering scheme. A person can often make errors and may not see it. This could help you from needless hours of frustration down the line.

Keep these basic but essential suggestions handy whenever you are numbering your network cabling prints on the job. You can use these labeled floorplans to create permanent floor plans to file at the close of your work. Include your cabling path ways on the final floorplans and any firestop sleeves you have placed.

In addition to labeling your drawings always make sure you have a cable tester onsite. For info on the Fluke DTX 1800 or Fluke Linkrunner cable testers please stop in to see us.

Beautiful College Libraries: Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley is known the world over for so many things. Student peace protests during the 1960’s and 70’s are probably at the top of the list, but there are also many famous alumni. Gregory Peck attended Berkeley, as did Steve Wozniak and Gordon Moore. The reputation and history of the university often overshadow other aspects, such as architecture and design. Here, we intend to highlight the qualities of the Doe Memorial Library on the Berkeley campus.

Established in 1868, Berkeley is a public research university on a sweeping 6651 acre campus east of San Francisco Bay. Doe Library is a central figure on campus, and is named after its benefactor Charles Franklin Doe. The architecture is Classical Revival, sometimes regarded as neoclassical. Viewing from Memorial Glade, the Doe Library almost bears the appearance of a Greek parliamentary house. More than ten towering white columns rise to the low-peaked roof. Lush green grounds surround the building, enhancing its imperial white presence.

The main collection of volumes belonging to the Doe Library is not housed in the amazing above ground building, but actually below it. Four stories and 52 miles of shelving, all directly below the main reading hall, provide 24 hour access to the Gardener Stacks Collection for all students. Amid all those stacks are pockets of study spaces with free Wi Fi. Before the appearance of the underground Gardener Stacks, the above ground building stored the library’s inventory in what was lovingly referred to as the Doe Core. The Doe Core was an eight story central structure illuminated by day lighting and sky lights. Sadly, seismic upgrading meant the Doe Core had to be dismantled and books were moved down stairs.

The main study hall within the Doe Library is as tall and majestic as the outside of the building, and comparable to European university libraries in terms of its adornment. The broadly coved ceiling is lit via several stained glass skylights, and otherwise decorated with plaster carved rosettes within sunken squares. From one end of the study hall to the other, the walls are lined with three story high plate glass windows. Oak shelving along the bottom walls holds precious manuscripts and books, while the rest of the study hall is outfitted with over tables and seats enough to accommodate 400 students at a time.

Doe Library is largely unchanged in appearance since its construction at the beginning of the 20th century. Seismic upgrades have taken place, yet much of the structure and architectural design has remained intact. Perhaps it is that apparent predictability that has kept the Doe Library at the front of the load. As a research university, students often return to the campus during their professional lives. The Doe Library must be quite a comfort to them, considering the onslaught of younger generation students wandering the rest of the campus.

Sarah O’Sullivan is a representative of CollegeBookRenter.com, where the goal is to make your textbook rental and purchasing experience as easy as possible. Why buy textbooks from us? Not only is our search system faster and easier but with CollegeBookRenter.com, buying your books can save you up to 85% on your textbook costs! If you are looking to purchase textbooks online, visit us today!

The advantages of getting a wooden toronto deck assembled

There’s undoubtedly some thing about lumber. Simply by its extremely nature, it consists of a welcoming charm with it, in which surely goes back again to it becoming one of our initial creating supplies within the earliest times of human development. We have been creating decks and fences in Toronto for many years and are popular via the expression “Toronto Decks Builder”.

Wood decks clearly create elegance and also heat for a home. Loved by all of your good friends and family members, a solid wood deck forms an outside place, therefore bringing the indoors out into the wide open and expanding your main residing area. In a few areas

Wood decks improve the back yards of most residences, but in particular, they work effectively with lots of kinds of gardens.

Modern landscape style: This kind of design employs dramatic geometric structures, easily personified in lumber planks, to produce a point of view that is fluid and organic. Horizontal and vertical planes may well create a modern sculpture impact whilst colours and plantings evoke a cozy, welcoming feel. Drinking water and mild are often employed, as in artfully-lit outdoor water fountains, to be able to increase the visible feast. It is the juxtaposition of soft and difficult, linear and non-linear, free-flowing and restrained that defines modern landscape design. Wood decks fit nicely into this type of backyard and you will find lots of examples of those in the Toronto neighborhood.

Japanese back garden layout: In this custom, the garden is really a microcosm associated with naturel, thus a real wood deck fits in wonderfully. It can perform off perfectly in opposition to fences and gates, other elements important to Japanese back gardens with their fundamental philosophy of enclosure. The fence closes us apart in the outside world, the gate stands out as the threshold by which we enter into the escape and leave for the outdoors globe, and the real wood deck connects us to our pure selves. You will find numerous examples of those kinds of gardens within the North Toronto community.

We use the optimal cedar to be able to construct all of our wood decks and fences.

When choosing wood for the decking or fences, cedar and pressure-treated pine are the most well-liked material choice. Numerous people today select handled pine simply because it stands up effectively to temperature and damp soil, a couple of of the most common difficulties we deal with within the Toronto community. We build a lot of decks and fences, gazebos, sheds in the Rosedale and Forest Hill region exactly where the moisture is high. Choosing the correct wood for these decks and fence projects is extremely important.

Nevertheless, Ipe, Tigerwood, Redwood and Western Red Cedar have resins that naturally protect them from weathering and decaying, too. Cedar can also be well-liked simply because it possesses dimensional balance as well as a natural resistance to weathering. These kinds of woods typically lie even, keep straight, retain fasteners and deliver a firm base for many sorts of stains and paints. If utilizing cedar within the Toronto Decks and Fence business, all of our valued clients are extremely happy with our business and consider us to be experts.

Following our corporation has built a design for you, wooden decks and fences require to become shielded each two many years or possibly even longer. A penetrating, distinct wooden finish or even stain ought to accomplish the same goal. It is additionally a very good idea to frequently verify for protruding nail heads, some thing that occurs with temperature changes which can make wood broaden and contract. You will also wish to take a look for any decaying locations, particularly on staircases as well as railings. These kind of services may be bundled in landscape upkeep deals with landscape services organizations. With specialty lumber such as Ipe, Tigerwood and Western Red Cedar, the process is very precise and I’d only suggest performing this when you have prior expertise.

For you to view lots more posts relating to decks and fence, visit Complete Toronto Decks and Fence Institution. Top quality wood plans within Optimal Toronto decks and fence designers.

What To Anticipate From Professors At Architecture School

There are a number of scholarships that architecture schools accepts to help pay for tuition. I received two scholarships, one that the school offered and one from an outdoors resource. Both were accepted and I’m able to attend this school virtually free. My tuition as well as my room and board at the dormitory is covered.

A degree from architecture school is a superb begin to any career. The curriculum at this school is geared toward the professional and several of the classes give a student actual world, hands-on experience in their trade. The program is designed to give each pupil relevant experience so they are set up to flourish in their field of expertise. This is an innovative program, and several colleges are attempting to duplicate the program because the scores accomplished by graduates of the college.

You will find multiple superb sources of information about architecture school out there for your disposal. Your current school counselor can assist educate you about the school. Another superb source out there is the web. You could find many things on the internet that can assist you to with anything you’re looking for.

If you’re searching for an actual education and not just a piece of paper saying you’re a matriculate then architecture school is where you want to be. The professors are not just knowledgeable about the topics they teach, but they want you to be knowledgeable about them as well. The atmosphere is relaxed, yet you are continually studying.

There are many individuals to speak to for advice in relation to architecture schools, and that includes advisers and the many graduates the school has put out. The school attributes a highly intelligent staff that caters to the needs of anybody in their vicinity. If you have a question, they’ve an answer or can direct you to someone who does.

To prevent being completely overwhelmed during your first year at architecture school, be sure to avert taking a very heavy course load. It might tempting to take as several interesting classes as you are able to, but pacing yourself could prevent fatigue and allow you to work at a greater quality. Find a balance between your social and academic life, being certain to find sufficient time for both.

Mainly because of the reputation of architecture schools for bringing well versed, quality employees to the work force their graduates are extremely sought after assets to many big firms looking to stay ahead of the market. On average graduates that receive a degree from XYZ school create double the national earnings of students that have graduated from other comparable schools.

The Big Problems With Secondary Glazing And Condensation Concerns

Two of the more common ways for homeowners to increase their home’s energy efficiency is to install either secondary- or double-glazed windows. Both of these systems work relatively well for cutting heating and cooling costs and for reducing the ‘carbon foot print’ of the dwelling. They are not, however, equal in efficiency. There is a significant problem, for example, with secondary glazing and condensation build-up.

If you choose to install double-glazed windows you should see savings on your energy bill, reducing it to about one half of its current amount. A high-quality double-paned window is very efficient at its job, which is to reduce heat loss and insulate against outside noise and air pollution. Your home will be cleaner and quieter and, most of all, more comfortable and efficient.

What makes double-glazing work so well is the sealed space left between the two panes of glass. This void, which may either contain a vacuum or be filled with air or another gas (usually argon), makes for a very good insulation barrier between you and the outside world. This insulating space must be completely sealed (air-tight) in order to function properly.

If Low-E glass is used the window will be even more efficient. Low-E, which stands for low-emissivity, is a microscopically small coating added to one side of the glass. This enables the window to bounce back long-waves of energy (room heat, for example) into the room but allow short-waves (solar energy from the sun) to enter. This is very ‘smart’ glass.

Because proper double-glazing will employ an air-tight seal, chances of condensation appearing are minimal. The same cannot be said about secondary glazing, which is one of its shortcomings. Because secondary windows are placed on the inside of existing single-paned windows they just don’t work as well as when the primary window is replaced with a double-glazed unit. Unfortunately, adding double-paned models isn’t always possible.

For one thing, secondary glazing can be used even in Conservation areas and may be installed without planning consent. If your home is listed this may be your only viable option. In that case a few things should be considered.

Besides the problems associated with secondary glazing and condensation there is also the inconvenience of this type of arrangement to be taken into account. You may want to remove these secondary windows during the summer months, which means finding a storage area for them. Also be aware that these types of windows will normally make escape from the house in an emergency more difficult.

In search of the greatest sash window restoration London company? Well, we used this company to get ours fixed and it was done fast. They also have a secondary glazing London company. They got the job done fast and easy.

Elite Training Courses Available For Young Carpenters In The USA

The second largest US building trade is carpentry. Training courses available for young carpenters in the USA assist students in preparing to enter this profession, and arm them for advancement in their careers. Having a good general background plus some specialized skills will help them reach their career goals.

There were 1.3 million carpenter jobs in the US, as of the year 2008. The US Department of Labor expects a 13% increase in that number for the 2008 – 2018 ten year period. These jobs are high paying, but demand for construction professionals fluctuates, along with economic conditions and construction needs.

These jobs have become increasingly complex, requiring specialized knowledge. They can range from erecting new structures for commercial or residential use, to repair or remodeling of existing buildings or installation of fixtures or cabinetry. Building infrastructure supports, mine or underground passage construction supports, or scaffolding for other projects, or forms for pouring concrete, are all possible types of work.

The successful applicant can be expected to possess basic skills in English, physics, geometry, algebra, blueprint reading and mechanical drawing. He should understand structural design basics and terminology. He needs to know how to lay out and complete a project from framing to finishing.

He will be familiar with various hand and power tools and their various applications. A knowledge of materials, and the varieties of woods, along with their properties and uses, will give him an edge over other applicants.

Besides schooling he will need to be physically fit to be able to spend his days standing, climbing, lifting, and kneeling. Work is commonly done outdoors in a wide range of weather conditions. Manual dexterity, balance, and eye to hand coordination are needed to do good work, and avoid injury while using sharp tools, working with sharp materials, at heights, or with unstable footing.

Skilled people who can build something will always be needed. Demand for housing will increase as populations do. Existing structures will need repairs. As energy efficiency plays a more prominent role new energy efficient buildings will be demanded. Training courses available for young carpenters in the USA provide their students with the advantages they need to secure one of these high paying jobs. Those who are hired or promoted, and keep their positions during downturns are the ones that have thorough a versatile, general knowledge, or can do work others can not because of their specialized experience.

Looking for more information on specialty training courses available for young carpenters in the USA ? Get the low down now in our complete guide to sash windows and sash window refurbishment london .

Examine The Cultural Importance Of Sash Windows

Sash windows are familiar to the parts of the world influenced by English designs in architecture. This style was invented in Georgian times and has been used ever since.

Although the origin of this style is not completely established (by a registered patent, for instance), the creator is generally held to be an English scientist and inventor, Robert Hooke. He was instrumental in rebuilding London after its Great Fire of 1666, being named official surveyor and designing many of the principal buildings built in the 70s. Hooke used his knowledge of clock making and studies in gravity to create his innovative design, one which has never gone out of fashion.

Sashes are part of life for many, who grew up hearing about ‘throwing up the sash’ when St. Nick came with his reindeer on ‘The Night Before Christmas.’ Remember vainly trying to open a window either stuck by the swelling of the wood or by repeated layers of paint? Or getting a stick to prop it open because the inner weights or cords had stopped doing their job?

Think of all the scenes in movies when a sneaky burglar silently raises an unlocked window to creep inside, or how many times you yourself have gotten in when you have misplaced the key to the front door. How about the suspense or comedy shows when a window is shut just before the eavesdropping hero or heroine hears the vital clue?

How about pies left to cool on a window sill, a traditional lure for hungry boys or vagrants passing by? How many best friends or lovers have tossed pebbles at the window to encourage someone to come out for adventure or romance? How many college boys have serenaded their lady through an open window of a sorority house?

It is just as romantic when a fresh breeze flutters the curtains, or the sound of awakening birds ushers in the dawn along with the coolness of the morning. The sounds of children playing outside is part of summertime, reminiscent of times before air conditioning, and there has been many a marital argument over whether the window should be open or closed.

Sash windows are still fashionable and eminently practical after all these years. It is hard to think about a day when children won’t be drawing houses with tic-tac-toe windows and a lolly pop tree in the yard. Changes in the design may have made cleaning easier and security better, but the essentials are still with us after three centuries.

Get inside information on the cultural value of sash windows now in our overview of sash window refurbishment and all you need to know about sash window refurbishment London .